Location: Alekseevsky district, Bilyarsk, Arbuzov Str. 2
This is one of the most important places linked with the history of the Bulgar State. Bilyar (from the Bulgar – “great”) was the biggest of the towns not only of Bulgaria (Suvar, Oshel’, Dzhuketau, etc) but also of medieval Eurasia as a whole (according to archaeologists, bigger than London or Paris of that time).
From the 10th to the 13th centuries Bilyar was the capital of the Bulgar State. Its area reached 10 million m². The territory included a citadel, inner-city, outer city, and trading quarter. In the citadel protected by a wooden wall up to 10 m thick, there was a large cathedral mosque, royal cemetery, palace complex, storerooms, and workshop. Consisting of big white stone, brick, and wooden buildings the town made a striking impression on travelers. One of them, Dzhevaliki, compared its buildings with those of Rum (Constantinople). In the autumn, of 1236, the Mongols destroyed Bilyar. In the 14th-16th centuries, Bilyar was an ordinary town of Bulgaria and the Kazan Khanate. In the 17th-18th centuries, it was a fortified town along the old Zakam’e line which protested against raids by Bashkirs and Nogais. In the 19th century, it was famous for its pottery.
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