Pyanoborskyi burial ground

Location: Agryzsky district, the Krasnyi Bor village

The site is located in the centre of the village of Krasnyi Bor (until the 1920s – Pyanyi Bor). The place is well known because of the Pyanobor archaeological culture, which takes its name from this village. Here on the Kama in the lower reaches of the Belaya and Ik rivers the successors of the Anan’ino tribes of the Pyanobor culture, the last of the tribes of the Finno-Ugric group to develop in this place. The clan – tribal organisation of the tribe – was still in place based on large patriarchal families which united into patronymic groups, while the family commune was developing and property stratification and patriarchal slavery were becoming more pronounced (2nd century BC to 5th century AD). On the threshold of the new era Sarmatians again came from the south into the steppe regions of Zakam’e and other tribes came to the Volga as far as Kazan.

In the 3rd and 4th centuries began the epoch of the Great Migration of the Peoples. During the first centuries, the huge masses of Huns wandered over the steppes of the southern Urals. Under pressure from them, Turkic and Ugric tribes began to move across the Urals to the north and reached the Kama. Here, in the region between the mouths of the Belaya and Vyatka rivers where the greater part of the Pyanobor tribes lived, the newcomers destroyed and burned villages, driving out and assimilating the native population. The Pyanobor tribes in panic flight migrated to the Vyatka, the lower reaches of the Kama and the Volga beyond as far as the Rivers Sura and Oka where they became the basis for the formation of Mordvinians and Mari.

Collections of finds from the burial ground are in many Russian museums. One of the largest is in the State Joint Museums of the Republic of Tatarstan.