The town is situated on the left bank of the Volga river, 38 km from Kazan. The town is the administrative centre of the Zelenodolsky district. It is one of the greenest towns in the Volga region. The environs of the town include a recreational area, which because of the pure air, beautiful forests, and the shores of the Volga attracts not only local people.
Historical Transition (Before 1920)
Before 1920, the settlement of Paratsk belonged to the Ilyinskaya volost of the Kazan district in the Kazan province. A significant transformation occurred in 1928 when it evolved into the industrial settlement of Zelenyi Dol. By 1932, it achieved city status as Zelenodolsk, later becoming the center of the Zelenodolsk district in 1958.
Founding and Early Inhabitants
The roots of Zelenodolsk intertwine with several settlements. In the early 19th century, migrants from the Russian village of Vyazovye in the Sviyazhsk district founded the village of Gari, also known as Zelenyi Dol. Inhabitants comprised state peasants and emancipated serfs.
The years 1890–1892 witnessed the construction of the Petropavlovskaya wooden church, a cultural monument blending eclectic classicism with folk architecture. Around 80 Old Believers also resided here, maintaining a private prayer house. In 1894, the Zelenyi Dol railway station came into existence.
Industrial Expansion and Setbacks
The Kabachischenskyi Zaton became a vital wintering and repair location for river vessels in the 1880s. The area and settlement, later forming Zelenodolsk, were referred to as Paratsk in official documents from 1897. The construction of a steel plant in 1898 by the Volga-Visher joint-stock company marked a pivotal point, although the project was halted in the early 20th century.
The construction of the Romanov bridge in 1913, Europe’s largest railway bridge at the time, added a significant landmark to Zelenodolsk.
During World War I, shipbuilding and artillery production facilities were evacuated to Paratsk from the Petrograd province. In World War II, Zelenodolsk’s enterprises contributed armored boats, artillery shells, aviation bombs, machine guns, aviation plywood, and various weapons and equipment to the front lines.
Post-War Innovations and Contributions
The establishment of Zelenodolsk Design Bureau in 1949 focused on military shipbuilding. In the latter half of the 20th century to the early 21st century, the city’s industries diversified, producing various military ships, high-speed vessels like the “Meteor” on submerged wings, “river-sea” tankers, bridges, ammunition, refrigerators, oil and gas equipment, moisture-resistant plywood, and furniture.
Cultural Enrichment and Museums
Zelenodolsk embraced cultural development with the inception of school museums, a music theatre, and the Museum of Military and Labor Glory of the A.M. Gorky Plant. The city’s artistic heritage is showcased in the Art Gallery, while the Historical and Cultural Heritage Museum opened in 2005. It features exhibits on the region’s early history, Romanov bridge, significant constructions, wartime contributions, and local pride.
On the city’s northeastern outskirts lies the archaeological site of Zelenodolskaya Stoyanka, dating back to the Eneolithic era.
Coat of arms
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